See a GP if you have:

  • sudden severe pain in any joint – usually the big toe, or fingers, wrists, elbows or knees
  • red, hot, swollen skin over the affected joint

These are symptoms of gout.

Gout does not cause lasting damage to joints if you get treatment straight away.

Ask for an urgent appointment or call 111 if:

  • the pain is getting much worse and you have a very high temperature (you feel hot and shivery)

This could mean you have an infection inside the joint.

Attacks of gout are usually treated with anti-inflammatory medicine like ibuprofen.

If the gout does not improve after 3 to 4 days, you might be given steroids as tablets or an injection.

Do

  • take any medicine you have been prescribed as soon as possible – it should start to work within 3 days

  • rest and raise the limb

  • keep the joint cool – apply an ice pack, or a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a towel, for up to 20 minutes at a time

  • drink lots of water (unless advised not to by a GP)

  • try to keep bedclothes off the affected joint at night

Don't

  • do not knock the joint or put pressure on it

Treatment to prevent gout coming back

Gout can come back every few months or years. It can come back more often if not treated.

If you have frequent attacks or you have high levels of uric acid in your blood, you may need uric acid-lowering medicine.

Important

It's important to take uric acid-lowering medicine regularly, even when you no longer have symptoms.

Making lifestyle changes might mean you can stop or reduce further attacks.

Do

  • get to a healthy weight, but avoid crash diets – you could try the NHS weight loss plan

  • aim for a healthy, balanced diet, with plenty of vegetables and some low-fat dairy foods

  • have at least 2 alcohol-free days a week

  • drink plenty of fluids to avoid getting dehydrated

  • exercise regularly – but avoid intense exercise or putting lots of pressure on joints

  • stop smoking

  • ask a GP about vitamin C supplements

Don't

  • do not eat a lot of red meat, kidneys, liver or seafood

  • do not have lots of sugary drinks and snacks

  • do not have lots of fatty foods

  • do not drink more than 14 units of alcohol a week (and do not have it all on 1 or 2 days)

Things that can trigger a gout attack

You might get an attack if you're very stressed or have had an illness.

If you injure or bruise a joint and it's more painful than you'd expect after a minor bump, it could be an attack coming on.

Get treatment straight away if you feel an attack coming on.

Who gets gout

Gout sometimes runs in families.

It's more common in men, especially as they get older.

Other people at risk include:

  • women after the menopause
  • people who take medicines such as diuretics (water tablets) for blood pressure, or have high levels of cholesterol
  • people who are overweight and who drink alcohol, especially beer

Complications of gout

It's rare to get lots of attacks, but if you do, you can develop permanent damage to the joint (chronic gout).

Chronic gout can also cause tiny white lumps (tophi) to appear under your skin, especially on your ears, fingers or elbows.

This is where urate crystals form under the skin. They can be painful.

You can get kidney stones if your uric acid levels are very high, so you'll need treatment to reduce the levels.